Isaac Asimov's collection of nine short stories was first published in 1950 and explored the idea of robopsychology through the character Susan Calvin, an employee responsible for testing robot prototypes at a robot manufacturing company. In this series, Asimov developed his three laws of robots. First, a robot cannot harm humans. Second, robots must obey orders, except where doing so would harm humans. Third, robots must protect themselves except where that would violate the first or second law.
These directives bear a striking resemblance to the Darwinian laws of evolution which posit the survival of self, others and species. This juncture of evolution and the creation of artificial intelligence compares man, as creator of artificial life, to God, the creator of human life. Moral issues abound when humans are faced with the decision to create beings which are either intentionally subservient, equal or perhaps even superior to themselves. Despite its generic visage and lack of apparent gender, the being on the cover of Asimov's book could strike a deep note of fear, and rightly so. It posseses not only super strength, but is free of emotion, love, the need for companionship or entanglement with romantic drama. It is complete unto itself. Subservient it may be, this robot possess a certain tranquility and enlightenment that humans can never hope to attain.